21st Century Skills- Hard & Soft Skills

One of the most important aims of education is to prepare individuals for daily life while also preparing them for business life. To be the manager, employee, parent, or entrepreneur of the future, individuals need to be prepared for school life and have the ability to cope with difficulties. Individuals need cognitive and non-cognitive skills to unlock their full potential (National Research Council, 2012). The project named "Partnership for 21st Century Learning (P21)" was put forward in America, in the 21st century. attention to their skills. This project aims to draw attention to the skills needed in parallel with the developments in the future planning of institutions, brands, and even countries not only in America but all over the world (Gelen 2017). In these contexts, the concept of 21st-century skills has come to the fore in recent years. 21st-century skills are divided into three main headings. These; Learning and renewal skills, knowledge, media and technology skills, and life and professional skills. Learning and renewal skills are; creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration. Information, media, and technology skills are; information literacy, media literacy, and information and communication technology literacy. Life and professional skills are; flexibility and adaptability, entrepreneurship and self-direction, social and intercultural skills, productivity and responsibility, and leadership and responsibility. After much emphasis has been placed on 21st-century skills in the literature, soft and hard skills have also found their place in the literature. Soft skills are all skills that individuals possess that cannot be seen with the naked eye. For example, communication skills, teamwork, leadership qualities, positive approach, and problem-solving skills. Hard skills are measurable and observable skills for an individual to do a job. All skills are included in hard skills, with certificates or diplomas acquired throughout his school life. Individuals with both types of skills are considered successful by standing out in society. In today's world, only individuals with difficult skills are seen as inadequate. In addition, the skills of a single discipline are not considered sufficient. Individuals are expected to have interdisciplinary knowledge and skills. In the report published by the OECD (2018), it was stated that some occupations will disappear and new occupational groups will be created for the year 2030. In addition, it was emphasized that the knowledge taught only in schools would not be sufficient for new occupational groups and that certain skills should be gained by the students. To exist in the new global economy that will exist with new occupational groups will only be possible with the implementation of a curriculum supported by skills (Wagner 2018).

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